Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 16377675
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2006 Jan;50(1):113-20
Whether or not flucytosine should be administered to patients infected with Cryptococcus neoformans isolates found to be resistant to flucytosine in vitro remains a controversial issue. Thus, the efficacy of amphotericin B and flucytosine in combination was investigated by mortality and fungal burden studies in a murine model of disseminated cryptococcosis using two clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans, one susceptible and one resistant (i.e., 64 microg/ml) to flucytosine. Amphotericin B was given intraperitoneally at 0.25 or 0.5 mg/kg/day, while flucytosine was given at 100 or 250 mg/kg/day orally. Treatment was started 24 h or day 6 after inoculation and continued for 5 days in fungal burden and mortality studies, respectively. The combination of amphotericin B at 0.5 mg/kg/day and flucytosine at 250 mg/kg/day was significantly more effective than monotherapies for reducing fungal burden in brain, spleen, and lungs after infection by the flucytosine-susceptible isolate and in brain and spleen for the flucytosine-resistant isolate. For the flucytosine-resistant isolate, the combination of amphotericin B at 0.5 mg/kg/day with flucytosine at 100 mg/kg/day was significantly better than monotherapies for reducing the fungal burden in the brain. Survival obtained after the combination of amphotericin B at 0.5 mg/kg/day and flucytosine at 250 mg/kg/day increased compared to that obtained with monotherapies for both isolates, but the difference was statistically significant only for the flucytosine-susceptible isolate. Antagonism was never observed. This study demonstrates the beneficial effect of the addition of flucytosine to amphotericin B against experimental disseminated cryptococcal infection even when the C. neoformans isolate is resistant to flucytosine.