Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 16800882
Retrovirology 2006 Jun; 3(): 37
The generalized T-cell activation characterizing HIV-1 and SIVmac infections in humans and macaques (MACs) is not found in the non-pathogenic SIVagm infection in African green monkeys (AGMs). We have previously shown that TGF-beta1, Foxp3 and IL-10 are induced very early after SIVagm infection. In SIVmac-infected MACs, plasma TGF-beta1 induction persists during primary infection 1. We raised the hypothesis that MACs are unable to respond to TGF-beta1 and thus cannot resorb virus-driven inflammation. We therefore compared the very early expression dynamics of pro- and anti-inflammatory markers as well as of factors involved in the TGF-beta1 signaling pathway in SIV-infected AGMs and MACs.Levels of transcripts encoding for pro- and anti-inflammatory markers (tnf-alpha, ifn-gamma, il-10, t-bet, gata-3) as well as for TGF-beta1 signaling mediators (smad3, smad4, smad7) were followed by real time PCR in a prospective study enrolling 6 AGMs and 6 MACs.During primary SIVmac infection, up-regulations of tnf-alpha, ifn-gamma and t-bet responses (days 1-16 p.i.) were stronger whereas il-10 response was delayed (4th week p.i.) compared to SIVagm infection. Up-regulation of smad7 (days 3-8 p.i.), a cellular mediator inhibiting the TGF-beta1 signaling cascade, characterized SIV-infected MACs. In AGMs, we found increases of gata-3 but not t-bet, a longer lasting up-regulation of smad4 (days 1-21 p.i), a mediator enhancing TGF-beta1 signaling, and no smad7 up-regulations.Our data suggest that the inability to resorb virus-driven inflammation and activation during the pathogenic HIV-1/SIVmac infections is associated with an unresponsiveness to TGF-beta1.