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© Sandrine Etienne-Manneville
Photo prise à l'avant (dans la protrusion) d'astrocytes primaires de rat en migration. Marquage par immunofluorescence montrant en rouge, p150 Glued, une protéine associée aux extrémités 'plus' des microtubules et en vert la tubuline des microtubules. La photographie montre l'accumulation de p150 Glued à l'avant des cellules en migration, où la protéine pourrait participer à l'ancrage des microtubules à la membrane plasmique. Pour essayer de corriger, les dérèglements observés lors de la migration des cellules d'astrocytes tumuraux ou gliomes on cherche à connaitre les mécanismes moléculaires fondamentaux qui controlent la polarisation et la migration cellulaires.
Publication : Frontiers in immunology

Compartmentalized Cyclic AMP Production by the and Adenylate Cyclase Toxins Differentially Affects the Immune Synapse in T Lymphocytes

Scientific Fields
Diseases
Organisms
Applications
Technique

Published in Frontiers in immunology - 01 May 2018

Arumugham VB, Ulivieri C, Onnis A, Finetti F, Tonello F, Ladant D, Baldari CT

Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 29765373

Front Immunol 2018;9:919

A central feature of the immune synapse (IS) is the tight compartmentalization of membrane receptors and signaling mediators that is functional for its ability to coordinate T cell activation. Second messengers centrally implicated in this process, such as Ca and diacyl glycerol, also undergo compartmentalization at the IS. Current evidence suggests a more complex scenario for cyclic AMP (cAMP), which acts both as positive and as negative regulator of T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling and which, as such, must be subjected to a tight spatiotemporal control to allow for signaling at the IS. Here, we have used two bacterial adenylate cyclase toxins that produce cAMP at different subcellular localizations as the result of their distinct routes of cell invasion, namely CyaA and edema toxin (ET), to address the ability of the T cell to confine cAMP to the site of production and to address the impact of compartmentalized cAMP production on IS assembly and function. We show that CyaA, which produces cAMP close to the synaptic membrane, affects IS stability by modulating not only the distribution of LFA-1 and its partners talin and L-plastin, as previously partly reported but also by promoting the sustained synaptic accumulation of the A-kinase adaptor protein ezrin and protein kinase A while suppressing the β-arrestin-mediated recruitment of phosphodiesterase 4B. These effects are dependent on the catalytic activity of the toxin and can be reproduced by treatment with a non-hydrolyzable cAMP analog. Remarkably, none of these effects are elicited by ET, which produces cAMP at a perinuclear localization, despite its ability to suppress TCR signaling and T cell activation through its cAMP-elevating activity. These results show that the IS responds solely to local elevations of cAMP and provide evidence that potent compartmentalization mechanisms are operational in T cells to contain cAMP close to the site of production, even when produced at supraphysiological levels.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29765373