Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 22732586
Link to DOI – 10.4049/jimmunol.1200268
J Immunol 2012 Aug; 189(3): 1202-8
γδ T cells play key nonredundant roles in immunity to infections and tumors. Thus, it is critical to understand the molecular mechanisms responsible for γδ T cell activation and expansion in vivo. In striking contrast to their αβ counterparts, the costimulation requirements of γδ T cells remain poorly understood. Having previously described a role for the TNFR superfamily member CD27, we since screened for other nonredundant costimulatory receptors in γδ T cell activation. We report in this article that the Ig superfamily receptor CD28 (but not its related protein ICOS) is expressed on freshly isolated lymphoid γδ T cells and synergizes with the TCR to induce autocrine IL-2 production that promotes γδ cell survival and proliferation in both mice and humans. Specific gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments demonstrated a nonredundant function for CD28 interactions with its B7 ligands, B7.1 (CD80) and B7.2 (CD86), both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, γδ cell proliferation was significantly enhanced by CD28 receptor agonists but abrogated by B7 Ab-mediated blockade. Furthermore, γδ cell expansion following Plasmodium infection was severely impaired in mice genetically deficient for CD28. This resulted in the failure to mount both IFN-γ-mediated and IL-17-mediated γδ cell responses, which contrasted with the selective effect of CD27 on IFN-γ-producing γδ cells. Our data collectively show that CD28 signals are required for IL-2-mediated survival and proliferation of both CD27(+) and CD27(-) γδ T cell subsets, thus providing new mechanistic insight for their modulation in disease models.