Lien vers Pubmed [PMID] – 29038956
Lien DOI – 10.1007/82_2017_46
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol ; 415(): 163-187
Innate immunity encompasses immediate host responses that detect and respond to microbes. Besides recognition by the complement system (see the chapter by A. Barbosa, this volume), innate immunity concerns cellular responses. These are triggered through recognition of conserved microbial components (called MAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), leading, through secretion of cytokines, antimicrobial peptides, and immune mediators, to cellular recruitment and phagocytosis. Leptospira spp. are successful zoonotic pathogenic bacteria that obviously overcome the immune system of their hosts. The first part of this chapter summarizes what is known about leptospires recognition and interaction with phagocytes and other innate immune cells, and the second part describes specific interactions of leptospiral MAMPs with PRRs from the TLR and NLR families. On the one hand, pathogenic leptospires appear to escape macrophage and neutrophil phagocytosis. On the other hand, studies about PRR sensing of leptospires remain very limited, but suggest that pathogenic leptospires escape some of the PRRs in a host-specific manner, due to peculiar cell wall specificities or post-translational modifications that may impair their recognition. Further studies are necessary to clarify the mechanisms and consequences of leptospiral escape on phagocytic functions and hopefully give clues to potential therapeutic strategies aimed at restoring the defective activation of PRRs by pathogenic Leptospira spp.