Lien vers Pubmed [PMID] – 30020446
Clin. Infect. Dis. 2019 Feb;68(4):688-698
Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) screening and targeted preemptive fluconazole in antiretroviral-naive human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults with CD4 cell counts <100/μL seems promising as a strategy to reduce the burden of cryptococcal meningitis (CM). We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science and used random-effect meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of blood CrAg positivity (31 studies; 35644 participants) and asymptomatic CM in CrAg-positive participants and the incidence of CM and the all-cause mortality rate in screened participants. The pooled prevalence of blood CrAg-positivity was 6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5%-7%), and the prevalence of asymptomatic CM in CrAg-positive participants was 33% (95% CI, 21%-45%). The incidence of CM was 21.4% (95% CI, 11.6%-34.4%) without preemptive fluconazole and 5.7% (95% CI, 3.0%-9.7%) with preemptive fluconazole therapy initiated at 800 mg/d. In CrAg-positive participants, postscreening lumbar puncture before initiating preemptive fluconazole at 800 mg/d further reduced the incidence of CM to null and showed some survival benefits. However, the all-cause mortality rate remained significantly higher in CrAg-positive than in CrAg-negative participants (risk ratio, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.7-2.9; P < .001).