Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 37035496
Link to DOI – ofad13610.1093/ofid/ofad136
Open Forum Infect Dis 2023 Apr; 10(4): ofad136
Vaccination reduces mortality from infectious disease, which is the leading cause of death in children under 5 and bears a particularly high burden in low- and middle-income countries. The Global Vaccine Action Plan (2011-2020) has set a target of 90% vaccine coverage for all vaccines included in national immunization programs by 2020. The objectives of this study were to estimate vaccine coverage among children in Madagascar, Cambodia, and Senegal and to identify the risk factors associated with incomplete vaccination.Using data from a community-based prospective cohort that included all newborn of some areas from 2012 to 2018 in these 3 countries, vaccine coverage was estimated for BCG, hepatitis B, oral polio, pentavalent (targeting diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and Haemophilus influenzae type b), and measles vaccines. Risk factor analysis was performed with logistic regression models to identify correlates of incomplete vaccination.A total of 3606 children were followed up, and vaccine coverage was below the 90% threshold for most vaccines in all countries. Coverage was higher for vaccines recommended at birth and at 6 weeks, while a decrease in coverage for subsequent doses was observed for vaccines requiring several doses (23-47 points). Low birth weight (<2500 g) was an important risk factor for nonvaccination for vaccines recommended at birth in all 3 countries (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] ranging from 1.93 [1.11-3.38] to 4.28 [1.85-9.37]).Vaccine coverage for common childhood vaccines was lower than World Health Organization recommendations, and multidisciplinary approaches may help to improve vaccine coverage and timeliness.