Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 30669682
Link to DOI – 1010.3390/vaccines7010010
Vaccines (Basel) 2019 Jan; 7(1):
The current increase in vector-borne disease worldwide necessitates novel approaches to vaccine development targeted to pathogens delivered by blood-feeding arthropod vectors into the host skin. A concept that is gaining traction in recent years is the contribution of the vector or vector-derived components, like salivary proteins, to host-pathogen interactions. Indeed, the triad of vector-host-pathogen interactions in the skin microenvironment can influence host innate and adaptive responses alike, providing an advantage to the pathogen to establish infection. A better understanding of this “bite site” microenvironment, along with how host and vector local microbiomes immunomodulate responses to pathogens, is required for future vaccines for vector-borne diseases. Microneedle administration of such vaccines may more closely mimic vector deposition of pathogen and saliva into the skin with the added benefit of near painless vaccine delivery. Focusing on the ‘micro’⁻from microenvironments to microbiomes to microneedles⁻may yield an improved generation of vector-borne disease vaccines in today’s increasingly complex world.