Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 15694856
Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 2005 Feb;8(1):46-53
Bacterial pathogens rely on a variety of virulence factors to establish the colonization of a new niche. Although peptidoglycan and its muropeptide derivatives have been known to possess potent biological properties, until recently the molecular bases were poorly understood. With the identification of the cytosolic surveillance mechanism mediated by the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (Nod)1 and Nod2 proteins, which detect unique peptidoglycan-derived muropeptides, these muropeptides should be considered as potential virulence factors. Recent research highlights the role of peptidoglycan in the pathogenesis of different human pathogens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes or Helicobacter pylori.