Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 19279090
J. Virol. 2009 May;83(10):5244-55
Little is known about the transmission or tropism of the newly discovered human retrovirus, human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 3 (HTLV-3). Here, we examine the entry requirements of HTLV-3 using independently expressed Env proteins. We observed that HTLV-3 surface glycoprotein (SU) binds efficiently to both activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. This contrasts with both HTLV-1 SU, which primarily binds to activated CD4(+) T cells, and HTLV-2 SU, which primarily binds to activated CD8(+) T cells. Binding studies with heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1), two molecules important for HTLV-1 entry, revealed that these molecules also enhance HTLV-3 SU binding. However, unlike HTLV-1 SU, HTLV-3 SU can bind efficiently in the absence of both HSPGs and NRP-1. Studies of entry performed with HTLV-3 Env-pseudotyped viruses together with SU binding studies revealed that, for HTLV-1, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) functions at a postbinding step during HTLV-3 Env-mediated entry. Further studies revealed that HTLV-3 SU binds efficiently to naive CD4(+) T cells, which do not bind either HTLV-1 or HTLV-2 SU and do not express detectable levels of HSPGs, NRP-1, and GLUT-1. These results indicate that the complex of receptor molecules used by HTLV-3 to bind to primary T lymphocytes differs from that of both HTLV-1 and HTLV-2.