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© Institut Pasteur
Cells infected for 24 hrs with C. Trachomatis. The cell nuclei are labelled in blue, the bacteria appear yellow, within the inclusion lumen. A bacterial protein secreted out the inclusion into the host cytoplasm id labelled in red.
Publication : Microbiology spectrum

The Molecular Genetics of Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Scientific Fields
Diseases
Organisms
Applications
Technique

Published in Microbiology spectrum - 01 Aug 2014

Mayer C, Takiff H

Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 26104201

Microbiol Spectr 2014 Aug;2(4):MGM2-0009-2013

The fluoroquinolones (FQs) are synthetic antibiotics effectively used for curing patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). When a multidrug-resistant strain develops resistance to the FQs, as in extensively drug-resistant strains, obtaining a cure is much more difficult, and molecular methods can help by rapidly identifying resistance-causing mutations. The only mutations proven to confer FQ resistance in M. tuberculosis occur in the FQ target, the DNA gyrase, at critical amino acids from both the gyrase A and B subunits that form the FQ binding pocket. GyrA substitutions are much more common and generally confer higher levels of resistance than those in GyrB. Molecular techniques to detect resistance mutations have suboptimal sensitivity because gyrase mutations are not detected in a variable percentage of phenotypically resistant strains. The inability to find gyrase mutations may be explained by heteroresistance: bacilli with a resistance-conferring mutation are present only in a minority of the bacterial population (>1%) and are therefore detected by the proportion method, but not in a sufficient percentage to be reliably detected by molecular techniques. Alternative FQ resistance mechanisms in other bacteria–efflux pumps, pentapeptide proteins, or enzymes that inactivate the FQs–have not yet been demonstrated in FQ-resistant M. tuberculosis but may contribute to intrinsic levels of resistance to the FQs or induced tolerance leading to more frequent gyrase mutations. Moxifloxacin is currently the best anti-TB FQ and is being tested for use with other new drugs in shorter first-line regimens to cure drug-susceptible TB.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26104201