Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 30446505
Sci Immunol 2018 Nov;3(29)
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are important mediators of the immune response and homeostasis in barrier tissues of mammals. However, the existence and function of ILCs in other vertebrates are poorly understood. Here, we use single-cell RNA sequencing to generate a comprehensive atlas of zebrafish lymphocytes during tissue homeostasis and after immune challenge. We profiled 14,080 individual cells from the gut of wild-type zebrafish, as well as of -deficient zebrafish that lack T and B cells, and discovered populations of ILC-like cells. We uncovered a -positive subset of ILCs that could express cytokines associated with type 1, 2, and 3 responses upon immune challenge. Specifically, these ILC-like cells expressed and after exposure to inactivated bacteria or after exposure to helminth extract. Cytokine-producing ILC-like cells express a specific repertoire of novel immune-type receptors, likely involved in recognition of environmental cues. We identified additional novel markers of zebrafish ILCs and generated a cloud repository for their in-depth exploration.