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© Valérie Choumet
Mosquitoes were orally infected with the chikungunya virus. Midguts were dissected at day 5 post-infection, fixed and permeabilised. Virus is shown in red (anti-E2 protein, cyanine 3), the actin network in green (phalloidin 548) and nuclei in blue (DAPI).
Publication : The Journal of experimental medicine

Signal transduction by CXC chemokine receptor 4. Stromal cell-derived factor 1 stimulates prolonged protein kinase B and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 activation in T lymphocytes

Scientific Fields
Diseases
Organisms
Applications
Technique

Published in The Journal of experimental medicine - 01 Aug 2000

Tilton B, Ho L, Oberlin E, Loetscher P, Baleux F, Clark-Lewis I, Thelen M

Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 10934220

J. Exp. Med. 2000 Aug;192(3):313-24

We report that stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 has the remarkable capacity to induce sustained signaling through CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). In contrast to other chemokines, such as monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (CC chemokine receptor 2 [CCR2]), macrophage inflammatory protein 1beta (CCR5), liver and activation-regulated chemokine (LARC [CCR6]), Epstein-Barr virus-induced molecule 1 ligand chemokine (ELC [CCR7]), and IP10 (CXCR3), SDF-1 stimulates the prolonged activation of protein kinase B and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-2. Activation of protein kinase B is reversed by displacement of SDF-1 from CXCR4 or inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Although increasing concentrations of SDF-1 enhance CXCR4 internalization, kinase activation is prolonged. In addition, restimulation yields >60% of initial protein kinase B activity, indicating that the remaining receptors are not desensitized. Furthermore, activation is prolonged by inhibiting SDF-1 degradation. The sustained activation of cell survival and mitogenic pathways may account for the unique role of SDF-1 and CXCR4 in embryogenesis and lymphopoiesis.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10934220