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© Valérie Choumet
Mosquitoes were orally infected with the chikungunya virus. Midguts were dissected at day 5 post-infection, fixed and permeabilised. Virus is shown in red (anti-E2 protein, cyanine 3), the actin network in green (phalloidin 548) and nuclei in blue (DAPI).
Publication : European cytokine network

SDF-1-induced activation of ERK enhances HIV-1 expression

Scientific Fields
Diseases
Organisms
Applications
Technique

Published in European cytokine network - 01 Sep 2000

Montes M, Tagieva NE, Heveker N, Nahmias C, Baleux F, Trautmann A

Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 11022134

Eur. Cytokine Netw. 2000 Sep;11(3):470-7

Chemokine receptors are not only able to bind chemokines but, together with CD4, they serve as an entry door for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The signalling capacity of chemokine receptors, which is of fundamental importance for chemokine-induced chemotaxis, is not used by HIV-1 to enter a target cell, nor by chemokines or chemokine-derived ligands to inhibit viral entry. In addition, an ill-defined signal triggered by chemokines can, under some circumstances, lead to an increase in HIV-1 expression. We show here that, in infected cells, exposure to SDF-1 leads to an increased expression of a X4 strain of HIV-1. A similar increase can be induced by an N-terminal peptide of SDF-1 which had previously been shown to elicit an intracellular calcium response and to inhibit the entry of X4 strains of HIV-1. We demonstrate the involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) in this phenomenon. SDF-1 activates ERK-1 and ERK-2 in Jurkat cells. In HeLa cells, ERK-2 only is activated by SDF-1 or by a SDF-derived peptide. This ERK activation can be blocked by pertussis toxin and by the MEK inhibitor U0126. Most importantly, SDF-1-dependent HIV-1 expression is abolished by pretreating the cells with pertussis toxin or with U0126. The consequences of this SDF-1-induced, ERK-dependent modulation of HIV-1 expression in infected cells may have a clinical relevance for eradicating latent viruses.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11022134