Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 14984021
Autoimmunity 2003 Dec;36(8):447-55
Transcriptional regulation is a consequence of the combination of both activation and repression for establishing specific patterns of eukaryotic gene expression. The regulation of the expression of type I interferon (IFN-A and -B) multigene family is controlled primarily at the transcriptional level and has been widely studied as a model to understand the mechanisms of stable repression, transient expression and postinduction repression of genes. The positive and negative regulatory elements required for this on/off switch have been defined within a complex 5′ upstream region of their transcription start site. The differential expression pattern of IFN-A genes is thought to involve both substitutions in the virus responsive element (VRE-A) and presence or absence of the distal negative regulatory element (DNRE) which is delimited upstream of the VRE-A. The interferon regulatory factors (IRF)-3 and -7 binding to the VRE-A and interacting as homodimers or heterodimers participate in the virus-induced transcriptional activation of IFN-A family. This data and the presence of homeodomain protein pituitary homeobox 1 (Pitx1) binding to the distal DNRE, negatively regulating the IRF-3 and IRF-7 activities and interacting physically with IRF-3 and IRF-7 contribute to our understanding of the complex differential transcriptional activation and repression of the IFN-A genes.