Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 24741026
Link to DOI – 10.1530/ERC-14-0070
Endocr Relat Cancer 2014 Oct; 21(5): T255-71
Many studies have provided observational data on the association of obesity and thyroid cancers, but only few of them propose mechanisms that would permit a better understanding of the causal molecular mechanisms of this association. Considering that there is an increasing incidence of both obesity and thyroid cancers, we need to summarize and link recent studies in order to characterize and understand the contribution of obesity-related factors that might affect thyroid cancer development and progression. Adipose tissue is involved in many vital processes, including insulin sensitivity, angiogenesis, regulation of energy balance, activation of the complement system, and responses such as inflammation. Although these processes have their own molecular pathways, they involve the same molecules through which obesity and adipose tissue might exert their roles in carcinogenesis, not only affecting MAPK and PI3K or even insulin pathways, but also recruiting local inflammatory responses that could result in disease formation and progression. This review describes five important issues that might explain the link between excessive weight and thyroid cancer: thyroid hormones, insulin resistance, adipokines, inflammation, and sexual hormones.