Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 34526976
Link to DOI – 10.3389/fmicb.2021.712843
Front Microbiol 2021 ; 12(): 712843
Alongside antibiotic resistance, co-selection of antibiotics, biocides, and metal resistance is a growing concern. While hospital wastewater is considered a hotspot for antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and genes (ARGs), the scenario in India, one of the biggest consumers of antibiotics, remains poorly described. In this study, we used metagenomic sequencing to characterize ARGs and biocide/metal resistance genes (BMRGs) in four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Jaipur City of India. We observed a significantly lower richness and abundance of ARGs in the influent of a WWTP exclusively receiving hospital wastewater when compared to other three WWTPs involving municipal wastewater treatment. Several tetracycline and macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin resistance genes were enriched in influents of these three municipal wastewater-related treatment plants, whereas hospital wastewater had a higher abundance of genes conferring resistance to disinfectant-related compounds such as synergize and wex-cide-128, reflecting the patterns of antibiotic/disinfectant use. Of note, in the wastewater system with more chemicals, there was a strong correlation between the numbers of ARGs and BMRGs potentially harbored by common hosts. Our study highlights significant influxes of ARGs from non-hospital sources in Jaipur City, and thus more attention should be paid on the emergence of ARGs in general communities.