Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 23618041
BMC Infect. Dis. 2013 Apr;13:187
BACKGROUND: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) are a growing concern in hospitals and the community. How to control the nosocomial ESBL-E transmission is a matter of debate. Contact isolation of patients has been recommended but evidence supporting it in non-outbreak settings has been inconclusive.
METHODS: We used stochastic transmission models to analyze retrospective observational data from a two-phase intervention in a pediatric ward, successively implementing single-room isolation and patient cohorting in an isolation ward, combined with active ESBL-E screening.
RESULTS: For both periods, model estimates suggested reduced transmission from isolated/cohorted patients. However, most of the incidence originated from sporadic sources (i.e. independent of cross-transmission), unaffected by the isolation measures. When sporadic sources are high, our model predicted that even substantial efforts to prevent transmission from carriers would have limited impact on ESBL-E rates.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence that, considering the importance of sporadic acquisition, e.g. endogenous selection of resistant strains following antibiotic treatment, contact-isolation measures alone might not suffice to control ESBL-E. They also support the view that estimating cross-transmission extent is key to predicting the relative success of contact-isolation measures. Mathematical models could prove useful for those estimations and guide decisions concerning the most effective control strategy.