Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 15684465
Indian J Pediatr 2005 Jan;72(1):86
Severe leptospirosis rarely presents with primary pulmonary manifestations, without any associated jaundice or renal dysfunction. The authors report a nine-year-old boy who presented with complaints of abrupt onset of high fever; with myalgia, headache, and pain in right chest region, productive cough with hemoptysis and vomiting developing over the past 72 hours. Chest radiograph showed consolidation in the right upper lobe with air bronchogram. A history of contact with sewage water and presence of conjunctival suffusion in a child with pneumonia made us suspect leptospirosis. Following prompt initiation of parenteral penicillin therapy the child’s complaints resolved over the next five days. Dri-Dot test to detect anti-Leptospira antibodies was positive. The diagnosis of leptospirosis was confirmed by a positive microagglutination test to Leptospira interrogans serovar Australis by a fourfold rise in antibody titer in paired sera collected during convalescence. Leptospirosis presenting with pulmonary hemorrhage has been associated with significant mortality but it can be successfully treated with early clinical suspicion of alveolar hemorrhage and prompt therapy.