Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 24832470
Cell Death Differ. 2015 Feb;22(2):199-214
The impact of gut microbiota in eliciting innate and adaptive immune responses beneficial for the host in the context of effective therapies against cancer has been highlighted recently. Chemotherapeutic agents, by compromising, to some extent, the intestinal integrity, increase the gut permeability and selective translocation of Gram-positive bacteria in secondary lymphoid organs. There, anticommensal pathogenic Th17 T-cell responses are primed, facilitating the accumulation of Th1 helper T cells in tumor beds after chemotherapy as well as tumor regression. Importantly, the redox equilibrium of myeloid cells contained in the tumor microenvironment is also influenced by the intestinal microbiota. Hence, the anticancer efficacy of alkylating agents (such as cyclophosphamide) and platinum salts (oxaliplatin, cis-platin) is compromised in germ-free mice or animals treated with antibiotics. These findings represent a paradigm shift in our understanding of the mode of action of many compounds having an impact on the host-microbe mutualism.