Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 18630055
Med Trop (Mars) 2008 Apr;68(2):189-202
Poliovirus, the aetiological agent of poliomyelitis, is an enterovirus of the Picronaviridae family. Despite the success of the World Health Organisation (WHO) worldwide vaccination campaign against poliomyelitis, poliovirus remains a public health problem in several developing countries, in Africa and Asia in particular. This is partly due to the considerable capacity of poliovirus strains to circulate and spread in populations with insufficient vaccine coverage. In addition, the attenuated strains of the oral polio vaccine (OPV) may rapidly evolve a neurovirulent phenotype, causing rare cases of paralytic poliomyelitis. The recent occurrence of epidemics associated with vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) has highlighted the emergence of recombinant strains with genomes constituted of sequences from OPV strains together with sequences from non-polio enteroviruses. In this review, after briefly describing the molecular biology of poliovirus and the pathogenesis of poliomyelitis, we will provide an overview of the current situation concerning poliomyelitis prophylaxis and the strategies developed to fight this disease. We will also deal with the issue of the possible re-emergence of poliovirus after declaration of the eradication of wildtype poliovirus.