Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 28193694
Link to HAL – hal-04159590
Link to DOI – 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2374-16.2017
Journal of Neuroscience, 2017, 37 (11), pp.2960-2975. ⟨10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2374-16.2017⟩
The mechanisms orchestrating transient and sustained exocytosis in auditory inner hair cells (IHCs) remain largely unknown. These exocytotic responses are believed to mobilize sequentially a readily releasable pool of vesicles (RRP) underneath the synaptic ribbons and a slowly releasable pool of vesicles (SRP) at farther distance from them. They are both governed by Cav1.3 channels and require otoferlin as Ca2+ sensor, but whether they use the same Cav1.3 isoforms is still unknown. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in posthearing mice, we show that only a proportion (∼25%) of the total Ca2+ current in IHCs displaying fast inactivation and resistance to 20 μm nifedipine, a l-type Ca2+ channel blocker, is sufficient to trigger RRP but not SRP exocytosis. This Ca2+ current is likely conducted by short C-terminal isoforms of Cav1.3 channels, notably Cav1.342A and Cav1.343S, because their mRNA is highly expressed in wild-type IHCs but poorly expressed in Otof-/- IHCs, the latter having Ca2+ currents with considerably reduced inactivation. Nifedipine-resistant RRP exocytosis was poorly affected by 5 mm intracellular EGTA, suggesting that the Cav1.3 short isoforms are closely associated with the release site at the synaptic ribbons. Conversely, our results suggest that Cav1.3 long isoforms, which carry ∼75% of the total IHC Ca2+ current with slow inactivation and confer high sensitivity to nifedipine and to internal EGTA, are essentially involved in recruiting SRP vesicles. Intracellular Ca2+ imaging showed that Cav1.3 long isoforms support a deep intracellular diffusion of Ca2+SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Auditory inner hair cells (IHCs) encode sounds into nerve impulses through fast and indefatigable Ca2+-dependent exocytosis at their ribbon synapses. We show that this synaptic process involves long and short C-terminal isoforms of the Cav1.3 Ca2+ channel that differ in the kinetics of their Ca2+-dependent inactivation and their relative sensitivity to the l-type Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine. The short C-terminal isoforms, having fast inactivation and low sensitivity to nifedipine, mainly control the fast fusion of the readily releasable pool (RRP); that is, they encode the phasic exocytotic component. The long isoforms, with slow inactivation and great sensitivity to nifedipine, mainly regulate the vesicular replenishment of the RRP; that is, the sustained or tonic exocytosis.