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© Michel-Robert Popoff
Clostridium difficile en microscopie à contraste de phase. On distingue des bactéries sporulées, non sporulées et d'autres en cours de lyse (destruction). Bactérie de l'environnement (sol, eau, foin, sable), elle est à l'origine d'infections nosocomiales survenant après un traitement antibiotique : Clostridium difficile prédomine alors que les autres bactéries de la flore intestinale ont été détruites. L'infection peut provoquer deux types de pathologies graves : les colites pseudo-membraneuses dont l'origine est quasiment due à 100 % à C. difficile et la diarrhée post-antibiothérapie due à C. difficile dans 30 % des cas de ces diarrhées.
Publication : The Journal of biological chemistry

Clostridium difficile has an original peptidoglycan structure with a high level of N-acetylglucosamine deacetylation and mainly 3-3 cross-links

Scientific Fields
Diseases
Organisms
Applications
Technique

Published in The Journal of biological chemistry - 17 Jun 2011

Peltier J, Courtin P, El Meouche I, Lemée L, Chapot-Chartier MP, Pons JL

Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 21685382

J. Biol. Chem. 2011 Aug;286(33):29053-62

The structure of the vegetative cell wall peptidoglycan of Clostridium difficile was determined by analysis of its constituent muropeptides with a combination of reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography separation of muropeptides, amino acid analysis, mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. The structures assigned to 36 muropeptides evidenced several original features in C. difficile vegetative cell peptidoglycan. First, it is characterized by a strikingly high level of N-acetylglucosamine deacetylation. In addition, the majority of dimers (around 75%) contains A(2)pm(3) → A(2)pm(3) (A(2)pm, 2,6-diaminopimelic acid) cross-links and only a minority of the more classical Ala(4) → A(2)pm(3) cross-links. Moreover, a significant amount of muropeptides contains a modified tetrapeptide stem ending in Gly instead of D-Ala(4). Two L,D-transpeptidases homologues encoding genes present in the genome of C. difficile 630 and named ldt(cd1) and ldt(cd2), were inactivated. The inactivation of either ldt(cd1) or ldt(cd2) significantly decreased the abundance of 3-3 cross-links, leading to a marked decrease of peptidoglycan reticulation and demonstrating that both ldt(cd1)-and ldt(cd2)-encoded proteins have a redundant L,D-transpeptidase activity. The contribution of 3-3 cross-links to peptidoglycan synthesis increased in the presence of ampicillin, indicating that this drug does not inhibit the L,D-transpeptidation pathway in C. difficile.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21685382