Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 19268239
Arch Pediatr 2008 Dec;15 Suppl 3:S105-10
BACKGROUND: In France, meningococcal meningitis account for 50% of bacterial meningitis in children. The GPIP/ACTIV (Groupe de Pathologie Infectieuse Pédiatrique and Association Clinique et Thérapeutique Infantile du Val de Marne) set up an active surveillance network to analyze the epidemiological, clinical and biological features of meningococcal meningitis.
METHODS: From 2001 to 2007, 252 French paediatric wards working with 166 microbiology laboratories enrolled all children (0-18 years old) with bacterial meningitis. Risk factors, signs and symptoms, vaccination status, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, treatments and case fatality rate were recorded.
RESULTS: During the period of the study, 1344 meningococcal meningitis were reported among 2951 (45.5%) bacterial meningitis. Mean age was 4.4 years (+/-4.7, median 2.5) and 2/3 cases occurred in children under 5 years (68.5%). Serogroup B (59.1%) was preponderant following by serogroup C (28.9%). 25% of children had received an antibiotic treatment 24hours before lumbar puncture. A shock was reported in 31.3% of cases. Cerebrospinal fluid culture was positive in 73% of cases. All N. meningitidis isolates were susceptible to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone while 41.6% and 25.7% showed reduced susceptibility to penicillin and amoxicillin respectively. Two cases of meningitis due to isolates of serogroups C and B were reported in two children that were respectively vaccinated using A+C plain saccharide vaccine or two doses of MenBvac vaccine. All patients had received beta-lactamin. Global case fatality rate was 6.6% but was higher (9.9%) for serogroup C than for serogroup B (5.5%) (p=0,007).
CONCLUSION: This study is among the largest series of microbiologically documented meningococcal meningitis to date (more than 1300 cases). In France, meningococal is responsible for 50 % of meningitis. Effective meningococcal serogroup B vaccine and serogroup C vaccination recommendation could lessen considerably the burden of meningococal meningitis.