Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 2162966
J. Mol. Biol. 1990 Jun;213(4):677-86
The influence of different CC Ar GG boxes derived from either muscle-specific or serum-responsive genes, on the specificity of different promoters has been investigated. Inserted upstream from an 85 base-pair long minimal promoter of the human cardiac alpha-actin gene, a single copy of both the cognate CC Ar GG element (HCA1) and the c-fos gene serum response element (SRE) stimulate transcription four- to fivefold more efficiently in C2 myogenic cells than in L fibroblastic cells, SRE being two- to threefold more active than HCA1. Inserted upstream from the ubiquitous Herpes simplex thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) promoter, multimerized CC Ar GG boxes behave as strong muscle-specific activating elements, about 20-fold more active in myogenic C2 cells than in L fibroblasts and hepatoma HepG2 cells. They also confer serum responsiveness on the HSV-tk promoter. Efficiency of HCA1 and SRE tetramers in conferring both muscle specificity and serum responsiveness is roughly similar. It appears, therefore, that regardless of their origin (either muscle-specific or serum-responsive genes) CC Ar GG boxes behave by themselves as both muscle-specific activating and serum-responsive elements.