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© Artur Scherf
Scanning Electron Microscopy of Red Blood Cell infected by Plasmodium falciparum.
Publication : Vector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.)

Anopheles stephensi saliva enhances progression of cerebral malaria in a murine model

Scientific Fields
Diseases
Organisms
Applications
Technique

Published in Vector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.) - 11 Mar 2011

Schneider BS, Mathieu C, Peronet R, Mécheri S

Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 21395422

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011 Apr;11(4):423-32

Malaria accounts for the greatest morbidity and mortality of any arthropod-borne disease globally. Recently, it was determined that the protective antisporozoite CD8+ T-cell response originates predominantly from cutaneous lymph nodes draining the site of parasite inoculation by an Anopheles mosquito. The female mosquito inoculates sporozoites along with an assortment of salivary proteins into the skin of its mammalian host. Mosquito saliva has demonstrable antihemostatic as well as various immunomodulatory activities, and studies with mosquito-borne viruses support a role for mosquito saliva in enhancement of transmission and exacerbation of disease. Early differences in immune response can be detected, which discriminate between mice that are resistant and susceptible to neurological pathology. This supports the idea that early divergence in the immune response may influence the likelihood of progression to the more severe forms of malaria. To evaluate the effect of mosquito feeding on the pathogenesis and immune response to malaria, we injected washed Plasmodium berghei sporozoites intradermally in the presence or absence of mosquito feeding. We observed that mice exposed to mosquito feeding in tandem with the inoculation of sporozoites had higher parasitemias and an elevated progression to cerebral malaria. This was associated with, in particular, elevated levels of interleukin-4 and interleukin-10, suppression of overall transcription in response to infection, and decreased extravasation of dendritic cells and monocytes. This study enhances to our understanding of the complexity of the interactions between the malaria parasite, its host, and the mosquito vector.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21395422