Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 32820718
Link to DOI – 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.33.1900538
Euro Surveill 2020 08; 25(33):
Rotavirus is a major cause of severe gastroenteritis in children worldwide. The disease burden has been substantially reduced in countries where rotavirus vaccines are used. Given the risk of vaccine-induced intussusception, the benefit–risk balance of rotavirus vaccination has been assessed in several countries, however mostly without considering indirect protection effects.
We performed a benefit–risk analysis of rotavirus vaccination accounting for indirect protection in France among the 2018 population of children under the age of 5 years.
To incorporate indirect protection effects in the benefit formula, we adopted a pseudo-vaccine approach involving mathematical approximation and used a simulation design to provide uncertainty intervals. We derived background incidence distributions from quasi-exhaustive health claim data. We examined different coverage levels and assumptions regarding the waning effects and intussusception case fatality rate.
With the current vaccination coverage of < 10%, the indirect effectiveness was estimated at 6.4% (+/− 0.4). For each hospitalisation for intussusception, 277.0 (95% uncertainty interval: (165.0–462.1)) hospitalisations for rotavirus gastroenteritis were prevented. Should 90% of infants be vaccinated, indirect effectiveness would reach 57.9% (+/− 3.7) and the benefit–risk ratio would be 192.4 (95% uncertainty interval: 116.4–321.3). At a coverage level of 50%, indirect protection accounted for 27% of the prevented rotavirus gastroenteritis cases. The balance remained in favour of the vaccine even in a scenario with a high assumption for intussusception case fatality.
These findings contribute to a better assessment of the rotavirus vaccine benefit–risk balance.