Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 24457632
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 2014 Jun;66(2):140-7
BACKGROUND: To understand whether combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has been optimized, we asked whether 3-drug protease inhibitor (PI)-based cART intensified with raltegravir and maraviroc and initiated during early infection would improve outcomes when compared with similarly applied 3-drug PI-based cART.
METHODS: Forty newly HIV-1-infected patients were randomized 1:2 to receive 3-drug (N = 14) or 5-drug (N = 26) therapy. The primary end point was the percent of subjects with undetectable plasma viremia using standard reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and the single copy assay after 48 weeks. Secondary end points included levels of cell-associated HIV-1 DNA and RNA and levels of infectious virus in resting CD4 T cells at week 96 and quantitative and qualitative immunologic responses.
RESULTS: At 48 weeks, 34 subjects remained on study and are included in the as-treated analysis. Three of 11 (27.3%) in the 3-drug arm and 9 of 21 (42.9%) in the 5-drug arm had plasma HIV-1 RNA levels below detection by both standard reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and single copy assay (P = 0.46, Fisher exact test). No significant differences in absolute levels of proviral DNA or changes in cell-associated RNA were seen during 96 weeks of therapy. Mean levels of infectious HIV-1 in resting CD4 T cells at week 96 in 7 subjects treated with 3-drugs and 13 with 5-drugs were 0.67 and 0.71 infectious units per million, respectively (P = 0.81). No differences were seen in quantitative or qualitative immunologic determinations including markers of immune activation.
CONCLUSIONS: Intensified 5-drug cART initiated during early infection fails to significantly further impact virologic or immunologic responses beyond those achieved with standard 3-drug PI-based cART.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24457632