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© Valérie Choumet
Mosquitoes were orally infected with the chikungunya virus. Midguts were dissected at day 5 post-infection, fixed and permeabilised. Virus is shown in red (anti-E2 protein, cyanine 3), the actin network in green (phalloidin 548) and nuclei in blue (DAPI).
Publication : Santé (Montrouge, France)

[A network RER rooted on in vitro readout assays of Plasmodium falciparum sensitivity to chloroquine in the Indian Ocean Region]

Scientific Fields
Diseases
Organisms
Applications
Technique

Published in Santé (Montrouge, France) - 01 Apr 2003

Randrianarivelojosia M, Sahondra-Harisoa JL, Raharimalala LA, Raveloson A, Mauclère P, Ariey F

Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 14530121

Sante 2003 Apr-Jun;13(2):95-100

Chloroquine has been used as a first line drug to treat uncomplicated malaria cases during the last five decades in Madagascar and in the Comoros Union. The four plasmodial species known to infect humans occur on Madagascar Island. Chloroquine-resistant malaria cases, sometimes only suspected from presumptive malaria cases, have been reported in both countries. Thus, to redefine a strategy and a policy to cure malaria, there is a need to get relevant and updated data. In December 1999, the Madagascan Ministry of Health and the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar formed a network named RER for malaria resistance surveillance. In 2000 and 2001, 18 study sites (17 throughout Madagascar and 1 in Comoros) joined this network. Health-care workers were trained mainly for malaria diagnosis through the use of blood smear examination and for malaria case management. To alleviate the lack of competent medical teams within the health centres, and for technical and logistic reasons, as part of the network activities, it was decided to start with in vitro tests to assess the sensitivity of P.falciparum isolates to chloroquine by means of the isotopic method. Parasitized blood samples were collected from consenting patients. P.falciparum isolates were more predominant (989/1,036). Out of the 564 tests done, 432 (76.6%) could be assessed. Results demonstrated that 94.3% (381/404) of the Madagascan P.falciparum isolates were susceptible to chloroquine. In contrast, chloroquine-resistant isolates were prevalent in Comoros (8/28). The network set-up is presented. The usefulness of the in vivo approach and of the in vitro investigations (chemosusceptibility test and screening of mutations accounting for resistance to chloroquine) to monitor the emergence and the dissemination of chloroquine-resistant parasites is discussed.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14530121