Désolé, cet article est seulement disponible en “Anglais Américain”.
Groupe: Daniel Scott-Algara
Responsable de Structure
Grand Programme Fédérateur Microbes & Brain
Concept général du programme Le Grand Programme fédérateur Microbes & Brain (GPF M&B) réunit 17 équipes internationales de renom (Institut Pasteur Paris, Instituts Pasteur du réseau, Inserm, APHP) dans les domaines des Neurosciences, de […]
Institut Carnot Pasteur MI
L’Institut Carnot « Pasteur Maladies Infectieuses » (Pasteur MI) regroupe un ensemble constitué de 6 départements thématiques de l’Institut Pasteur (virologie, microbiologie, parasites et insectes vecteurs, mycologie, infection et épidémiologie, biologie cellulaire et infection), […]
The role of neutrophils in the host defense against A. fumigatus
We demonstrated by inactivating different cell populations the essential role of neutrophils in host defense against A. fumigatus. A thorough analysis of the role of neutrophils was continued through the study of the kinetics […]
Zinc chelation as new antifungal strategy against Aspergillus fumigatus
The increasing number of patients treated with cancer chemotherapy drugs in the past few decades have created an ever-expanding number of immunocompromised individuals who are at risk for opportunistic infections. As a result, opportunistic […]
Status of circulating and airways-derived neutrophils in cystic fibrosis
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic multiorgan disease caused by mutation of the transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. Obstructive lung disease is the predominant cause of morbidity and mortality. Lung inflammation and lung […]
Molecular basis of leukocyte reprogramming during systemic inflammation
Tissue injury, blood loss, hypoxia, transfusion, bacterial translocation, microbial infection, and cell activation by microbial products occur in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS; e.g. trauma, hemorrhage, ischemia, burns, surgery or sepsis). […]
Modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production
Modulation of the anti-inflammatory properties of interleukin-10 by adherence(Adib-Conquy et al. Intern. Immunol. 1999, 11, 689-698; Petit-Bertron et al. J. Leuk. Biol. 2003, 73, 145-154; Petit-Bertron et al. Cytokine 2005, 29, 1-12). Interleukin-10 (IL-10) […]
Innate immunity against Leishmania major
In its vertebrate host, Leishmania major encounters cells that express Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) The importance of the MyD88 adaptor molecule for the development of protective immunity against L. major has been documented. Some TLR […]
Innate immunity against Aspergillus fumigatus
Aspergillus fumigatus (A.f.) is an ubiquitous thermophilic, saprophytic filamentous fungus. The inhalation of conidia of A.f. may results in different pulmonary diseases. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, aspergilloma and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (are among the most […]
Cellular signaling mechanisms associated with the inhibition of endotoxin tolerance by IFNgamma and GM-CSF(Adib-Conquy & Cavaillon, J. Biol. Chem. 2002, 277; 27927). Endotoxin tolerance was initially described as a failure of animals to develop […]
Cell signaling via toll-like receptors and Nod molecule
Contribution of phagocytosis and Nod2 to cytokine induction by Staphylococcus aureus: evidence for a regulatory role of Nod1.(Kapetanovic et al. Infect. Immun. 2007, 75, 830-837) Toll-like receptors (TLR) are involved in the […]
Assessment of the inflammatory status of intensive care unit patients
Circulating cytokines and chemokines(Cavaillon et al. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 2003, 35, 535) The presence within the blood stream of cytokines with pro- or anti-inflammatory properties is a hallmark of the systemic inflammation occurring […]
- 2015The fiendish behavior of TNF can be counteracted by microRNA - EMBO molecular medicine
- 2015Targeting zinc homeostasis to combat Aspergillus fumigatus infections - Frontiers in microbiology
- 2015Host response biomarkers in the diagnosis of sepsis: a general overview - Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
- 2014TLR9 activation is triggered by the excess of stimulatory versus inhibitory motifs present in Trypanosomatidae DNA - PLoS neglected tropical diseases
- 2014Altered immune status of circulating T lymphocytes during sepsis: children also - Critical care (London, England)
- 2014Joseph Alouf (1929-2014) - FEMS microbiology letters
- 2014CD24-triggered caspase-dependent apoptosis via mitochondrial membrane depolarization and reactive oxygen species production of human neutrophils is impaired in sepsis - Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
- 2014Protective or deleterious role of scavenger receptors SR-A and CD36 on host resistance to Staphylococcus aureus depends on the site of infection - PloS one
- 2013TLR-mediated activation of NK cells and their role in bacterial/viral immune responses in mammals - Immunology and cell biology
- 2013Assessment of efficacy of antifungals against Aspergillus fumigatus: value of real-time bioluminescence imaging - Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
- +Voir la liste complète de publications
American Journal of SurgeryEuropean Cytokine Network
Innate Immunity (former Journal of Endotoxin Research)
Journal of Infectious Diseases
The Open Immunology Journal
The Open Critical Care Medicine Journal
International Journal of Inflammation
Pasteurians were very active in conducting research on endotoxins (lipopolysaccharide, LPS), a membrane compound of Gram-negative bacteria that alone can initiate most of the pathophysiological disorders observed during sepsis.
In 1904-1905, Alexandre Besredka (1870-1940), who succeeded Elie Metchnikoff (1845-1916), was the first scientist to obtain, and to characterize anti-endotoxin antibodies (Rietschel E. T., Cavaillon J-M: Richard Pfeiffer and Alexandre Besredka : creator of the concept of endotoxin and anti-endotoxin. Microbes and Infection 2003, 5, 1407-1414).
In 1935, André Boivin (1895-1945) joined the Institut Pasteur, after being the first to characterize the biochemical nature of endotoxin (“l’antigène glucido-lipidique”) together with Lydia Mesrobeanu (1908-1978) at the Cantacuzene Institute in Bucharest.
In 1960-1970, Anne-Marie Staub (born 1914) further characterized the nature of the O-antigens of various LPS, and made important immunochemical characterizations. She identified the subtle modifications of the O-antigen after infection of Salmonella by bacteriophages. With Prof. Otto Lüderitz and Otto Westphal, the leaders in the field, she further identified the biochemical and immunochemical properties of tyvelose, a new sugaridentified as part of the O-antigen of Salmonella typhi.
In 1970-1980, Louis Chedid, before studying muramyl dipeptide (MDP), made major contributions to the analysis of the polyclonal activation of B cells by LPS as well as its adjuvant properties. He also worked on the role of corticoids in animal models, and was the first to propose the concept of an universal antibody Louis Chedid (Chedid L et al. A proposed mechanism for natural immunity to enterobacterial pathogens. J. Immunol. 1968; 100 : 292-306), which could neutralize endotoxin during sepsis. In the Institute, Robert Girard, Richard Chaby and Jean-Marc Cavaillon perpetuate the interest of scientists at Institut Pasteur for endotoxins and made important contributions in the fields of B cell activation, cytokine production, and endotoxin tolerance.
In 2000, the Institut Pasteur hosted the the 6th conference of the “International Endotoxin Society” (IES).
Some of the presidents of the International Endotoxin Society: from left to right: Robert Munford (USA, 2000-2002),Takashi Yokochi (Japan, 2002-2004), Jean-Marc Cavaillon (France, 1998-2000), Stephanie Vogel (USA, 2004-2006), David Morrison (USA, 1996-1998), Ernst Rietschel (Germany, 1990-1992).
In 1879 -1880, Louis Pasteur was called by physicians to study puerperal septicemia. For the first time he identified the presence of bacteria in the blood stream of the patients. When Pasteur reported his observations in front of the Academies of Sciences and of Medicine, for the only woman who survived, he mentioned “Natura medicatrix won the victory”. It is this Natura medicatrix that we need to better understand to help the body to fight sepsis. (Séance Acad. Sci., Paris, March 18, 1879; Séance Acad. Sci., Paris, May, 3rd, 1880).
Since Louis Pasteur, no further work on human septicemia was undertaken in this Institute before Jean-Marc Cavaillon initiated his work in the field. This has only been possible thanks to two other people, Dr. Carlos Muñoz, a Chilean scientist who joined Cavaillon’s team for a post doctoral stay after he had worked with Prof. Charles Dinarello and brought the specific radio-immunoassays that allowed the measurements of IL-1ß and TNF in patients, and Dr. Jean Carlet, head of the intensive care unit at Saint Joseph hospital (Paris), who was a rare French medical doctor at that time ready to collaborate with scientists.
This fruitful collaboration resulted in a highly cited paper that demonstrated the altered capacity of monocytes from sepsis patients to release cytokines in response to endotoxin [*]. Sepsis remains a major problem in intensive care units [**]. Since then, Cavaillon has never stopped working with the most brilliant Parisians critical care doctors. In addition to saving lives, these critical care doctors’ scientific knowledge contributes to make progress when addressing the diseases. The collaborative works have been achieved with Prof. D. Payen (Hosp. Lariboisère), Prof J-F. Dhainaut (Hosp. Cochin), Dr. P. Moine (Hosp. Kremlin-Bicêtre), Prof. Annane (Hosp. H. Poincaré) and C. Adrie (Hosp. Delafontaine).
[*] Muñoz C., Carlet J., Fitting C, Misset B, Bleriot J-P., Cavaillon J-M. Disregulation of in vitro cytokine production by monocytes during sepsis. J. Clin. Invest. 1991, 88, 1747-1754 [**] Annane D., Bellissant E., Cavaillon J-M. Septic Shock The Lancet, 2005, 365, 63-78
Dr J. Carlet Dr. Carlos Muñoz
Elie Metchnikoff, the father of cellulare innate immunity
Cavaillon JM. The historical milestones in the understanding of leukocyte biology initiated by Elie Metchnikoff. J Leukoc Biol. 2011 Sep;90(3):413-24.
Starting his career as a zoologist and an embryologist, Elie Metchnikoff became a pathologist, beautifully defining the role of monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils during inflammation and innate immunity. Elie Metchnikoff was born in the Russian Empire near Kharkoff, present-day Ukraine. After his major discovery about phagocytosis in Sicily, he went looking for a permanent position. After his first meeting in 1887 with Louis Pasteur, Metchnikoff decided to join the Institut Pasteur, which was newly created. Metchnikoff was offered a director position of one of five units created when the institute was opened in 1888. Later, he was appointed deputy-director of Institut Pasteur from 1904 to 1916. From Paris, Metchnikoff was an active defender of the role of phagocytosis in inflammation and innate immunity. The controversy was mainly about the respective roles played by humoral immunity and cellular immunity in fighting infection. Among his most famous pupils, let’s mention Jean Cantacuzène (1863–1934), a Romanian medical doctor who opened an institute that bears his name, similar to Institut Pasteur – The Cantacuzino Institute, and Jules Bordet (1870–1961), a medical doctor from Belgium who was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1919 for his discovery on the complement system. During the end of his career, Metchnikoff worked on aging and particularly on intestinal flora and initiated the concept of probiotics.
Images & Médias
When the Institute was created by Louis Pasteur, teaching was one of the three goals that defined his institute. Dr Roux set up the very first course in 1889 (“course de microbie technique”).
The General Immunology Course
The General Immunology Course of Institut Pasteur was the first course of Immunology to be hold in Europe when created by Prof. Marguerite Faure in 1950. It remained the only immunology teaching in France for fifteen years. It was a three month course hold each year and its reputation was illustrated by the number of foreign students (up to 14 different nationalities). When it was suppressed in 2002, 80 scientists were invited to teach and contributed to its renow.
Phone: +33 (0)1 45 68 84 14 (assistant of the Unit)
25-28 Rue du Docteur Roux