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Bull. Acad. Natl. Med. 2011 Nov;195(8):1955-63; discussion 1963
Nematodes of the genus Oesophagostomum are common intestinal parasites found in cattle, pigs and primates. They can cause severe illness, resulting from the formation of granulomas, caseous lesions and abscesses in the intestinal wall. Human oesophagostomosis is endemic in northern Ghana and Togo. In these regions, epidemiological investigations have been conducted to determine the biological characteristics, transmission dynamics and optimal management of clinical cases. Nodular oesophagostomosis has also been described in free-ranging chimpanzees and gorillas. Clinical signs associated with nodules have been observed in great apes raised in sanctuaries, while the health status of their wild counterparts does not seem to be significantly affected It has been suggested that some nonhuman primates may act as reservoirs for human oesophagostomosis. In Ghana, identification of genetic differences among Oesophagostomum nematodes infecting different primate hosts suggests that oesophagostomosis is a rare zoonosis. In Uganda, where the situation is diferent, cross-infection is probably more frequent.