Lien vers Pubmed [PMID] – 30773816
Environ. Microbiol. 2019 Jun;21(6):2056-2078
To explore the diversity of mobile genetic elements (MGE) associated with archaea of the phylum Thaumarchaeota, we exploited the property of most MGE to integrate into the genomes of their hosts. Integrated MGE (iMGE) were identified in 20 thaumarchaeal genomes amounting to 2 Mbp of mobile thaumarchaeal DNA. These iMGE group into five major classes: (i) proviruses, (ii) casposons, (iii) insertion sequence-like transposons, (iv) integrative-conjugative elements and (v) cryptic integrated elements. The majority of the iMGE belong to the latter category and might represent novel families of viruses or plasmids. The identified proviruses are related to tailed viruses of the order Caudovirales and to tailless icosahedral viruses with the double jelly-roll capsid proteins. The thaumarchaeal iMGE are all connected within a gene sharing network, highlighting pervasive gene exchange between MGE occupying the same ecological niche. The thaumarchaeal mobilome carries multiple auxiliary metabolic genes, including multicopper oxidases and ammonia monooxygenase subunit C (AmoC), and stress response genes, such as those for universal stress response proteins (UspA). Thus, iMGE might make important contributions to the fitness and adaptation of their hosts. We identified several iMGE carrying type I-B CRISPR-Cas systems and spacers matching other thaumarchaeal iMGE, suggesting antagonistic interactions between coexisting MGE and symbiotic relationships with the ir archaeal hosts.