Lien vers Pubmed [PMID] – 35867855
Lien DOI – 10.1093/infdis/jiac312
J Infect Dis 2022 Jul; ():
Central Africa is one of the largest areas of high endemicity for human T-cell leukaemia virus (HTLV-1). However, no preventive measures are yet implemented to reduce its transmission, which can be sexual, from mother-to-child, or through contaminated blood products. Rare zoonotic transmissions from non-human primates (NHPs) have also been reported in this region. Here, we investigated the HTLV-1 prevalence and associated risk factors in a rural population in Cameroon.From 2019 to 2021, we performed a cross-sectional survey in the Eastern region of Cameroon. HTLV-1 infection was first screened by ELISA, then tested by Western blot and envelope gene targeted polymerase chain reaction. Risk factors associated with HTLV-1 infection were identified by logistic regression on univariable and multivariable analyses.Among 3,400 participants, HTLV-1 prevalence was 1.1% (95%CI 0.7-1.5). Factors independently associated with HTLV-1 infection were: Pygmy ethnicity (adjusted odd ratio ORa, 2.9, 95%CI 1.3-6.2), history of surgery (ORa 6.3, 95%CI 2.2-17.8) and NHP bite (ORa 6.6, 95%CI 2.2-19.8).These results suggest both iatrogenic and zoonotic transmission of HTLV-1 in Cameroon. Further studies are needed to assess the risk of nosocomial transmission of HTLV-1, to guide public health authorities in implementing preventive measures to control HTLV-1 transmission.