The CRISPR immune system protects bacteria and archaea from invading viruses and plasmids. Immunity depends on protein diverse protein complexes that use small RNA molecules to find matching viral or plasmid DNA. I will show how viruses escape immunity by mutating target sites or glycosylating their DNA, and will highlight a mechanism called priming that updates the CRISPR memory leading to rapid co-evolution between host and phage. I will present a new mechanism catalyzed by Cas4 proteins that selects functional CRISPR memories with a PAM (protospacer adjacent motif) that is essential for efficient CRISPR targeting. All of these insights into the biology of CRISPR gathered over the last 10 years have led to some of the most revolutionary molecular genetics tools to date, with Cas9 being the most well known example. I will review some new CRISPR tools for genome engineering approaches and molecular diagnostics.
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Bâtiment: Centre François Jacob
Adresse: 28 Rue du Docteur Roux, Paris, France