Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 12738604
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003 Jul; 168(2): 158-64
Major trauma is associated with a decreased capacity of patients’ leukocytes to produce proinflammatory cytokines on in vitro stimulation. We studied leukocytes from 48 patients with trauma and showed that this hyporeactivity was restricted to gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli endotoxin, and unmethylated bacterial DNA, whereas Leptospira interrogans endotoxin-induced tumor necrosis factor production was similar to that observed with healthy donors. As well, tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 production in response to gram-positive bacteria was not altered. The expression of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 was not reduced on patients’ monocytes as compared with healthy control subjects, whereas that of TLR4 was reduced. However, the hyporeactivity to gram-negative bacteria and E. coli endotoxin cannot be fully explained by the downregulation of TLR4. Indeed, unlike proinflammatory cytokines, after stimulation with these microbial products the release of antiinflammatory cytokines was increased as compared with healthy control subjects. The increased interleukin-10 production was analyzed in terms of intracellular signaling in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with trauma: our results suggest the involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, Sp-1 transcription factor, heterotrimeric Gi protein, and phosphatidylinositol-3′-kinase. In conclusion, the immunodysregulation described for patients with trauma is not a generalized phenomenon but depends on the stimulus and the signaling pathway.