Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 2476572
J. Virol. 1989 Oct;63(10):4317-24
The human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV18) long control region (LCR) harbors transcriptional promoter and enhancer elements. Recombinant plasmids bearing all or part of the HPV18 LCR cloned in enhancer or promoter configuration upstream of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene were transfected into human fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Although the HPV18 enhancer can function in the absence of E2 gene products in both fibroblasts and keratinocytes, the promoter activity of the HPV18 LCR is detectable in keratinocytes but not in fibroblasts, suggesting that it is tissue specific. This promoter activity was repressed in human keratinocytes not only by the bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 gene product but also by the homologous HPV18 E2 gene product. The promoter involved in the HPV18 E2 repression is located within a 230-base-pair domain directly upstream of the E6 open reading frame of the HPV18 LCR and is probably the previously identified E6 promoter. Although one cannot rule out the possibility that this repressing effect is mediated by a truncated form of HPV18 E2 protein, as was previously demonstrated for bovine papillomavirus type 1, a more likely explanation would be that the full-length HPV18 E2 protein behaves as a repressor. Indeed, at the same doses at which it inhibits transcription from the homologous HPV18 LCR, the HPV18 E2 gene product activates transcription from constructs bearing E2-binding palindromes cloned in enhancer configuration upstream of a heterologous promoter. The fact that the homologous HPV18 E2 gene product acts as a transcriptional repressor of the HPV18 LCR suggests a possible explanation for the overexpression of E6 and E7 open reading frames in cervical carcinoma cells and in cell lines derived from them.