Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 32690877
Link to HAL – pasteur-02948461
Link to DOI – 10.1038/s41579-020-0407-y
Nature Reviews Microbiology, 2020, ⟨10.1038/s41579-020-0407-y⟩
Host-associated microbial communities have an important role in shaping the health and fitness of plants and animals. Most studies have focused on the bacterial, fungal or viral communities, but often the archaeal component has been neglected. The archaeal community, the so-called archaeome, is now increasingly recognized as an important component of host-associated microbiomes. It is composed of various lineages, including mainly Methanobacteriales and Methanomassiliicoccales (Euryarchaeota), as well as representatives of the Thaumarchaeota. Host–archaeome interactions have mostly been delineated from methanogenic archaea in the gastrointestinal tract, where they contribute to substantial methane production and are potentially also involved in disease-relevant processes. In this Review, we discuss the diversity and potential roles of the archaea associated with protists, plants and animals. We also present the current understanding of the archaeome in humans, the specific adaptations involved in interaction with the resident microbial community as well as with the host, and the roles of the archaeome in both health and disease.