Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 26063425
J. Virol. 2015 Aug;89(16):8599-610
UNLABELLED: The interferon alpha (IFN-α)-inducible restriction factor MxB blocks HIV-1 infection after reverse transcription but prior to integration. Fate-of-capsid experiments have correlated the ability of MxB to block HIV-1 infection with stabilization of viral cores during infection. We previously demonstrated that HIV-1 restriction by MxB requires capsid binding and oligomerization. Deletion and gain-of-function experiments have mapped the HIV-1 restriction ability of MxB to its N-terminal 25 amino acids. This report reveals that the N-terminal 25 amino acids of MxB exhibit two separate functions: (i) the ability of MxB to bind to HIV-1 capsid and (ii) the nuclear localization signal of MxB, which is important for the ability of MxB to shuttle into the nucleus. To understand whether MxB restriction of HIV-1 requires capsid binding and/or nuclear localization, we genetically separated these two functions and evaluated their contributions to restriction. Our experiments demonstrated that the (11)RRR(13) motif is important for the ability of MxB to bind capsid and to restrict HIV-1 infection. These experiments suggested that capsid binding is necessary for the ability of MxB to block HIV-1 infection. Separately from the capsid binding function of MxB, we found that residues (20)KY(21) regulate the ability of the N-terminal 25 amino acids of MxB to function as a nuclear localization signal; however, the ability of the N-terminal 25 amino acids to function as a nuclear localization signal was not required for restriction.
IMPORTANCE: MxB/Mx2 blocks HIV-1 infection in cells from the immune system. MxB blocks infection by preventing the uncoating process of HIV-1. The ability of MxB to block HIV-1 infection requires that MxB binds to the HIV-1 core by using its N-terminal domain. The present study shows that MxB uses residues (11)RRR(13) to bind to the HIV-1 core during infection and that these residues are required for the ability of MxB to block HIV-1 infection. We also found that residues (20)KY(21) constitute a nuclear localization signal that is not required for the ability of MxB to block HIV-1 infection.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26063425