Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 12878520
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2003 Aug;47(8):2565-71
A self-transferable plasmid of ca. 80 kb, pIP1204, conferred multiple-antibiotic resistance to Klebsiella pneumoniae BM4536, which was isolated from a urinary tract infection. Resistance to beta-lactams was due to the bla(TEM1) and bla(CTX-M) genes, resistance to trimethroprim was due to the dhfrXII gene, resistance to sulfonamides was due to the sul1 gene, resistance to streptomycin-spectinomycin was due to the ant3″9 gene, and resistance to nearly all remaining aminoglycosides was due to the aac3-II gene and a new gene designated armA (aminoglycoside resistance methylase). The cloning of armA into a plasmid in Escherichia coli conferred to the new host high-level resistance to 4,6-disubstituted deoxystreptamines and fortimicin. The deduced sequence of ArmA displayed from 37 to 47% similarity to those of 16S rRNA m(7)G methyltransferases from various actinomycetes, which confer resistance to aminoglycoside-producing strains. However, the low guanine-plus-cytosine content of armA (30%) does not favor an actinomycete origin for the gene. It therefore appears that posttranscriptional modification of 16S rRNA can confer high-level broad-range resistance to aminoglycosides in gram-negative human pathogens.