Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 35798936
Link to DOI – 10.1038/s42003-022-03619-y
Commun Biol 2022 Jul; 5(1): 674
HIV infection induces tissue damage including lymph node (LN) fibrosis and intestinal epithelial barrier disruption leading to bacterial translocation and systemic inflammation. Natural hosts of SIV, such as African Green Monkeys (AGM), do not display tissue damage despite high viral load in blood and intestinal mucosa. AGM mount a NK cell-mediated control of SIVagm replication in peripheral LN. We analyzed if NK cells also control SIVagm in mesenteric (mes) LN and if this has an impact on gut humoral responses and the production of IgA known for their anti-inflammatory role in the gut. We show that CXCR5 + NK cell frequencies increase in mesLN upon SIVagm infection and that NK cells migrate into and control viral replication in B cell follicles (BCF) of mesLN. The proportion of IgA+ memory B cells were increased in mesLN during SIVagm infection in contrast to SIVmac infection. Total IgA levels in gut remained normal during SIVagm infection, while strongly decreased in intestine of chronically SIVmac-infected macaques. Our data suggest an indirect impact of NK cell-mediated viral control in mesLN during SIVagm infection on preserved BCF function and IgA production in intestinal tissues.