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© Research
Publication :

MOSQUITO SALIVA, SKIN, ALLERGY, AND THE OUTCOME OF MALARIA INFECTION—FROM MICE TO MEN

Scientific Fields
Diseases
Organisms
Applications
Technique

Published in - 23 Jan 2018

Claudia Demarta-Gatsi, Salaheddine Mécheri and Richard Paul

Skin and Arthropod Vectors. Editors: Nathalie Boulanger. Academic Press.

Skin provides the first line of defense against exoantigens including pathogens
and allergens and is composed of a complex immune network that subsequently
influences the systemic immune response. The evolution of hematophagy has
been accompanied by a diversification of salivary components that facilitate
blood meal acquisition and overcome triggered skin defenses that consist of
hemostasis, pain and itch responses, and immune effector mechanisms (James
and Rossignol, 1991; Titus and Ribeiro, 1990). There is compelling evidence that
arthropod saliva has profound effects on pathogen transmission (Ribeiro, 1987;
Belkaid et al., 1998). An immunomodulatory role of saliva has been reported
for arboviruses (Hajnicka et al., 2005; Schneider and Higgs, 2008) and protozoa
including Leishmania (Belkaid et al., 1998; de Moura et al., 2007), Trypanosoma,
(Mesquita et al., 2008) and Plasmodium (Depinay et al., 2006; Schneider et al.,
2011). The association of arthropod-borne pathogens with saliva and the known
immune-modulatory capacity of saliva call for elucidation of the role of the skin
and saliva in influencing the immediate and long-term immune responses to such
pathogens and the subsequent outcome of infection. In this sub-chapter we discuss
the importance of this for the specific case of malaria parasites and highlight
the value of considering malaria alongside non-infectious skin diseases.