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© Research
Publication : Nature

Missing self triggers NK cell-mediated chronic vascular rejection of solid organ transplants

Scientific Fields
Diseases
Organisms
Applications
Technique

Published in Nature - 25 Nov 2019

Alice Koenig, Chien-Chia Chen, Antoine Marçais, Thomas Barba, Virginie Mathias, Antoine Sicard, Maud Rabeyrin, Maud Racapé, Jean-Paul Duong-Van-Huyen, Patrick Bruneval, Alexandre Loupy, Sébastien Dussurgey, Stéphanie Ducreux, Vannary Meas-Yedid, Jean-Christophe Olivo-Marin, Héléna Paidassi, Romain Guillemain, Jean-Luc Taupin, Jasper Callemeyn, Emmanuel Morelon, Antonino Nicoletti, Béatrice Charreau, Valérie Dubois, Maarten Naesens, Thierry Walzer, Thierry Defrance & Olivier Thaunat

Link to DOI – 10.1038/s41467-019-13113-5

Nat Commun 10, 5350 (2019)

Current doctrine is that microvascular inflammation (MVI) triggered by a transplant -recipient antibody response against alloantigens (antibody-mediated rejection) is the main cause of graft failure. Here, we show that histological lesions are not mediated by antibodies in approximately half the participants in a cohort of 129 renal recipients with MVI on graft biopsy. Genetic analysis of these patients shows a higher prevalence of mismatches between donor HLA I and recipient inhibitory killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs). Human in vitro models and transplantation of β2-microglobulin-deficient hearts into wild-type mice demonstrates that the inability of graft endothelial cells to provide HLA I-mediated inhibitory signals to recipient circulating NK cells triggers their activation, which in turn promotes endothelial damage. Missing self-induced NK cell activation is mTORC1-dependent and the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin can prevent the development of this type of chronic vascular rejection.

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-13113-5