Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 10352299
J. Immunol. 1999 Jun;162(11):6784-91
In this study, we detailed in a time-dependent manner the trafficking, the recycling, and the structural fate of Brucella abortus LPS in murine peritoneal macrophages by immunofluorescence, ELISA, and biochemical analyses. The intracellular pathway of B. abortus LPS, a nonclassical endotoxin, was investigated both in vivo after LPS injection in the peritoneal cavity of mice and in vitro after LPS incubation with macrophages. We also followed LPS trafficking after infection of macrophages with B. abortus strain 19. After binding to the cell surface and internalization, Brucella LPS is routed from early endosomes to lysosomes with unusual slow kinetics. It accumulates there for at least 24 h. Later, LPS leaves lysosomes and reaches the macrophage cell surface. This recycling pathway is also observed for LPS released by Brucella S19 following in vitro infection. Indeed, by 72 h postinfection, bacteria are degraded by macrophages and LPS is located inside lysosomes dispersed at the cell periphery. From 72 h onward, LPS is gradually detected at the plasma membrane. In each case, the LPS present at the cell surface is found in large clusters with the O-chain facing the extracellular medium. Both the antigenicity and heterogenicity of the O-chain moiety are preserved during the intracellular trafficking. We demonstrate that LPS is not cleared by macrophages either in vitro or in vivo after 3 mo, exposing its immunogenic moiety toward the extracellular medium.