Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 9394011
J. Cell. Sci. 1998 Jan;111 ( Pt 1):45-60
O-glycosylation of proteins is initiated by a family of UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactos-aminyltransferases (GalNAc-T). In this study, we have localized endogenous and epitope-tagged human GalNAc-T1, -T2 and -T3 to the Golgi apparatus in HeLa cells by subcellular fractionation, immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. We show that all three GalNAc-transferases are concentrated about tenfold in Golgi stacks over Golgi associated tubular-vesicular membrane structures. Surprisingly, we find that GalNAc-T1, -T2 and -T3 are present throughout the Golgi stack suggesting that initiation of O-glycosylation may not be restricted to the cis Golgi, but occur at multiple sites within the Golgi apparatus. GalNAc-T1 distributes evenly across the Golgi stack whereas GalNAc-T2 and -T3 reside preferentially on the trans side and in the medial part of the Golgi stack, respectively. Moreover, we have investigated the possibility of O-glycan initiation in pre-Golgi compartments such as the ER. We could not detect endogenous polypeptide GalNAc-transferase activity in the ER of HeLa cells, neither by subcellular fractionation nor by situ glycosylation of an ER-retained form of CD8 (CD8/E19). However, upon relocation of chimeric GalNAc-T1 or -T2 to the ER, CD8/E19 is glycosylated with different efficiencies indicating that all components required for initiation of O-glycosylation are present in the ER except for polypeptide GalNAc-transferases.