Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 30726345
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 2019 Feb;114:e180425
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Brazil is responsible for a large number of Plasmodium vivax cases in America. Given the emergence of P. vivax parasites resistant to chloroquine and the effectiveness of antifolates in vivax malaria treatment together with a correlation between mutations in P. vivax dhfr and dhps genes and SP treatment failure, the point mutations in these genes were investigated.
METHODS: Blood samples from 54 patients experiencing vivax malaria symptomatic episodes in the Amazonian Region were investigated. Genomic DNA was extracted using a DNA extraction kit (QIAGENTM). Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was carried out followed by Sanger sequencing to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).
FINDINGS: All tested isolates showed non-synonymous mutations in pvdhfr gene: 117N (54/54, 100%) and 58R (25/54, 46%). Double mutant allele 58R/117N (FRTNI, 28%) was the most frequent followed by triple mutant alleles (58R/117N/173L, FRTNL, 11%; 58R/61M/117N, FRMNI, 5% 117N/173L, FSTNL, 4%) and quadruple mutant allele (58R/61M/117N/173L, FRMNL, 2%). A single mutation was observed at codon C383G in pvdhps gene (SGKAV, 48%).
CONCLUSION: No evidence of molecular signatures associated with P. vivax resistance to SP was observed in the Brazilian samples.