Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 27676777
Ann Phys Rehabil Med 2016 Sep;59S:e132-e133
OBJECTIVE: Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and lifelong acquired disability. The aim of this study was to prospectively study intellectual ability following childhood severe TBI over 7-8years post-injury, and factors influencing outcome and change over time.
MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: Children (0-15years) consecutively admitted in a single trauma center for severe non-inflicted TBI over a 3-year period were included in a prospective longitudinal study. Assessment was conducted at 3, 12 and 24months, and at 7-8years using age appropriate Wechsler Intelligence Scales. For the 7-8-year follow-up, one third of the group was aged 18years or more, and a group of matched controls was included. SES was assessed by parents’ education.
RESULTS: Sixty-five of the 81 included children survived (66% boys). After a mean delay post-injury of 7.6years (SD=1.5), 39 patients (60%) participated in the study [mean age at injury 7.6years (SD=4.72; <6years, n=15; ≥6years, n=23); median initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score: 6; mean coma duration: 6days (SD=4.8)]. Participants and non-participants did not differ in terms of demographic and severity factors, or initial full scale IQ (FSIQ). For 36% of the sample, at least one parent had graduated from high school. At the 7-8 year follow-up, mean FSIQ in the TBI group was significantly lower than in the control group (86.4; SD=18 versus 97.2; SD=11.2; P=0.016), with no significant change over time when compared with initial FSIQ (3months post-injury; 85.2; SD=18). In multivariate analysis, FSIQ was predicted mainly by parental SES (P=0.031), with a marginal effect of length of coma (P=0.079) and no effect of age at injury, initial GCS or intracranial hypertension.
DISCUSSION-CONCLUSION: Severe childhood TBI leads to severe and long-standing cognitive impairments, without significant improvement over time. Parental education appears to be the main predictor of cognitive outcome several years post-injury, consistent with previous studies in the literature.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27676777