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© Valérie Choumet
Mosquitoes were orally infected with the chikungunya virus. Midguts were dissected at day 5 post-infection, fixed and permeabilised. Virus is shown in red (anti-E2 protein, cyanine 3), the actin network in green (phalloidin 548) and nuclei in blue (DAPI).
Publication : Ecology and evolution

Evolutionary structure of Plasmodium falciparum major variant surface antigen genes in South America: Implications for epidemic transmission and surveillance

Scientific Fields
Diseases
Organisms
Applications
Technique

Published in Ecology and evolution - 08 Oct 2017

Rougeron V, Tiedje KE, Chen DS, Rask TS, Gamboa D, Maestre A, Musset L, Legrand E, Noya O, Yalcindag E, Renaud F, Prugnolle F, Day KP

Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 29187975

Ecol Evol 2017 Nov;7(22):9376-9390

Strong founder effects resulting from human migration out of Africa have led to geographic variation in single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and microsatellites (MS) of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. This is particularly striking in South America where two major founder populations of P. falciparum have been identified that are presumed to have arisen from the transatlantic slave trade. Given the importance of the major variant surface antigen of the blood stages of P. falciparum as both a virulence factor and target of immunity, we decided to investigate the population genetics of the genes encoding “Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1” (Pf EMP1) among several countries in South America, in order to evaluate the transmission patterns of malaria in this continent. Deep sequencing of the DBLα domain of var genes from 128 P. falciparum isolates from five locations in South America was completed using a 454 high throughput sequencing protocol. Striking geographic variation in var DBLα sequences, similar to that seen for SNPs and MS markers, was observed. Colombia and French Guiana had distinct var DBLα sequences, whereas Peru and Venezuela showed an admixture. The importance of such geographic variation to herd immunity and malaria vaccination is discussed.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29187975