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© Research
Publication : Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

Emergence of Plasmodium vivax Resistance to Chloroquine in French Guiana

Scientific Fields
Diseases
Organisms
Applications
Technique

Published in Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy - 22 Oct 2019

Musset L, Heugas C, Naldjinan R, Blanchet D, Houze P, Abboud P, Volney B, Walter G, Lazrek Y, Epelboin L, Pelleau S, Ringwald P, Legrand E, Demar M, Djossou F

Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 31481442

Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2019 11;63(11)

In South America, resistance to chloroquine was recently reported in Brazil and Bolivia. The objective of this study was to collect data on chloroquine resistance in French Guiana by associating a retrospective evaluation of therapeutic efficacy with an analysis of recurrent parasitemia from any patients. Patients with infection, confirmed by microscopy and a body temperature of ≥37.5°C, were retrospectively identified at Cayenne Hospital between 2009 and 2015. Follow-up and treatment responses were performed according to the World Health Organization protocol. Parasite resistance was confirmed after dosage of a plasma concentration of chloroquine and microsatellite characterization. The and genes were analyzed for sequence and gene copy number variation. Among the 172 patients followed for 28 days, 164 presented adequate clinical and parasitological responses. Eight cases of treatment failures were identified (4.7%;  = 8/172), all after 14 days. The therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine was estimated at 95.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 92.5 to 98.1%;  = 164/172). Among the eight failures, five were characterized: two cases were true chloroquine resistance (1.2%; 95% CI, 0 to 2.6%;  = 2/172), and three cases were found with subtherapeutic concentrations of chloroquine. No particular polymorphism in the and genes was identified in the resistant parasites. This identified level of resistance of to chloroquine in French Guiana does not require a change in therapeutic recommendations. However, primaquine should be administered more frequently to limit the spread of resistance, and there is still a need for a reliable molecular marker to facilitate the monitoring of resistance to chloroquine.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31481442