Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 28751891
Front Immunol 2017;8:796
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is used as a vaccine and diagnostic test for tuberculosis, as well as immunotherapy in the treatment of bladder cancer. While clinically useful, the response to mycobacterial stimulation is complex and the induced protein signature remains poorly defined. We characterized the cell types directly engaged by BCG, as well as the induced cytokine loops that transmit signal(s) to bystander cells. Standardized whole-blood stimulations and mechanistic studies on single and purified cell populations identified distinct patterns of activation in monocytes as compared to neutrophils and invariant lymphocyte populations. Deconvoluting the role of Toll-like receptor 2/4 and Dectin-1/2 in the inflammatory response to BCG, we revealed Dectin-1/2 as dominant in neutrophils as compared to monocytes, which equally engaged both pathways. Furthermore, we quantified the role of NF-κB and NADPH/reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent cytokines, which triggered a JAK1/2-dependent amplification loop and accounted for 40-50% of the induced response to BCG. In sum, this study provides new insight into the molecular and cellular pathways involved in the response to BCG, establishing the basis for a new generation of immunodiagnostic tools.