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© Research
Publication : Veterinary pathology

Canine melanoma diagnosis: RACK1 as a potential biological marker

Scientific Fields
Diseases
Organisms
Applications
Technique

Published in Veterinary pathology - 04 Jun 2013

Campagne C, Julé S, Alleaume C, Bernex F, Ezagal J, Château-Joubert S, Estrada M, Aubin-Houzelstein G, Panthier JJ, Egidy G

Link to Pubmed [PMID] – 23735618

Vet. Pathol. 2013 Nov;50(6):1083-90

Melanoma diagnosis in dogs can be challenging due to the variety of histological appearances of canine melanocytic neoplasms. Markers of malignancy are needed. Receptor for activated C-kinase 1 (RACK1) was found to characterize melanomas in other mammals. We investigated the value of RACK1 detection in the classification of 19 cutaneous and 5 mucosal melanocytic neoplasms in dogs. These tumors were categorized as melanocytomas or benign and melanomas or malignant after evaluation of their morphology, mitotic index, and Ki-67 growth fraction. Using immunofluorescence, we confirmed microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) as a marker of normal and transformed melanocytic cells in dog tissues. All control (n = 10) and tumoral (n = 24) samples stained positively for MITF (34/34, 100%). Whereas RACK1 was not detected in healthy skin melanocytes, melanocytic lesions were all positive for RACK1 signal (24/24, 100%). RACK1 cytoplasmic staining appeared with 2 distinct distribution patterns: strong, diffuse, and homogeneous or granular and heterogeneous. All melanoma samples (13/13, 100%) stained homogeneously for RACK1. All melanocytomas (11/11, 100%) stained heterogeneously for RACK1. Immunohistochemistry was less consistent than immunofluorescence for all labelings in melanocytic lesions, which were often very pigmented. Thus, the fluorescent RACK1-MITF labeling pattern helped to distinguish melanomas from melanocytomas. Furthermore, RACK1 labeling correlated with 2 of 11 morphological features linked to malignancy: cell and nuclear size. These results suggest that RACK1 may be used as a marker in dog melanomas.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23735618